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wq.io: Mappers

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wq.io: Mappers

wq.io.mappers

wq.io's Mapper mixin classes are used to make code for working with a loaded dataset more readable. This is accomplished by "mapping" each item in the dataset to a "usable item". Mappers are used during iteration, after the parser has created the data object as a list of dicts. The primary mapper class is TupleMapper, which converts each dict in the dataset into a namedtuple so fields can be accessed as row.name instead of row['name'].

from wq.io import ExcelFileIO

# Loader and Parser do their work here
instance = ExcelFileIO(filename='example.xls')

# Mapper does its work here
for row in instance:
    print row.name, row.date

# You can also access the unmapped data directly
for row in instance.data:
    print row['name'], row['date']

A mapper class should have two methods to accomplish the mapping:

name purpose
usable_item(row) Convert the source dict into a "usable item", e.g. a namedtuple. (This is just the method name, it's not meant to imply that dicts are unusable.)
parse_usable_item(item) Convert a usable item back into the source dict format. This is needed for full read+write support.

wq.io's built-in mapper classes build on this foundation and on each other.

BaseMapper

BaseMapper breaks down usable_item and parse_usable_item into functions that work on each field individually. All of the functions are effectively no-ops and meant to be overridden. The usable item BaseMapper returns is still a dict.

name purpose
map_field(field) Map a field name into its "usable" equivalent
unmap_field(field) Map a "usable" field name back to its original name
map_value(field, value) Map a field value into its "usable" equivalent
unmap_value(field, value) Map a "usable" value back into the source value

DictMapper

DictMapper extends BaseMapper with two simple dictionaries that facilitate field and value mapping. The usable item DictMapper returns is still a dict.

name purpose
field_map Map of fields to their usable equivalents: {"source_field1": "usable_name1", "source_field2": "usable_name2"}
value_map Map of values to be replaced with usable equivalents. If a value is not found in the map it will be preserved as is.

TupleMapper

TupleMapper extends DictMapper with a usable_item() that returns a namedtuple instead of a dict. Since namedtuple field names cannot contain spaces or punctuation, TupleMapper automatically computes a field_map with compatible values. TupleMapper defines the following method to facilitate adding new records.

name purpose
create(**kwargs) Create an instance of the internal namedtuple class with values for each field given as keyword arguments. This can be passed to append() which will update the underlying dataset as shown in the example below.
from wq.io import CsvFileIO
instance = CsvFileIO(filename="example.csv")
# len(instance) == len(instance.data) == 2

record = instance.create(name='test', value=123)
instance.append(record)
instance.save()

# len(instance) == len(instance.data) == 3

TimeSeriesMapper

TimeSeriesMapper extends TupleMapper with a map_value() implementation that automatically converts string dates into datetime objects. It can also automatically convert string number into floats. Two properties are used to configure TimeSeriesMapper:

name purpose
date_formats A list of format strings to use when attempting to parse dates.
map_floats Whether to attempt to map string numbers into floats (default True)